Effects of a Mediterranean Diet, Dairy, and Meat Products on Different Phenotypes of Dyslipidemia: A Preliminary Retrospective Analysis.

Bibliographic Details
Title: Effects of a Mediterranean Diet, Dairy, and Meat Products on Different Phenotypes of Dyslipidemia: A Preliminary Retrospective Analysis.
Authors: Formisano E; Nutritional Unit ASL-1 Imperiese, Giovanni Borea Civil Hospital, 18038 Sanremo, Italy., Pasta A; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy., Cremonini AL; Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Unit, IRCCS Policlinic Hospital San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy., Di Lorenzo I; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy., Sukkar SG; Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Unit, IRCCS Policlinic Hospital San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy., Pisciotta L; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.; Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Unit, IRCCS Policlinic Hospital San Martino, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
Source: Nutrients [Nutrients] 2021 Apr 01; Vol. 13 (4). Date of Electronic Publication: 2021 Apr 01.
Publication Type: Journal Article
Language: English
Journal Info: Publisher: MDPI Publishing Country of Publication: Switzerland NLM ID: 101521595 Publication Model: Electronic Cited Medium: Internet ISSN: 2072-6643 (Electronic) Linking ISSN: 20726643 NLM ISO Abbreviation: Nutrients Subsets: MEDLINE
Imprint Name(s): Original Publication: Basel, Switzerland : MDPI Publishing
MeSH Terms: Dairy Products* , Diet, Mediterranean* , Meat Products*, Dyslipidemias/*etiology, Adult ; Animals ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Female ; Humans ; Lipids/blood ; Lipids/classification ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Multivariate Analysis ; Retrospective Studies ; Risk Factors
Abstract: Background: Dyslipidemia is one of the major causes of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and a Mediterranean Diet (MD) is recommended for its prevention. The objectives of this study were to evaluate adherence to an MD at baseline and follow-up, in a cohort of dyslipidemic patients, and to evaluate how different food intakes can influence lipid profile, especially how different sources of saturated fatty acids impact lipid phenotype.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 106 dyslipidemic patients. Clinical characteristics, lipid profile, and food habits data were collected at baseline and after three months of follow-up with counseling. Adherence to an MD was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire (MEDI-LITE score).
Results: The cross-sectional analysis showed that higher consumption of dairy products correlated independently with higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and with lower triglycerides (TG) levels. Instead, lower HDL-C and TG levels and higher TC levels were independently associated with higher consumption of meat products. Adherence to an MD significantly improved after the follow-up period, from a mean value of 10 ± 3 (median 10, IQR 8-12) to 13 ± 2 (median 14, IQR 12-15), p < 0.0001.
Conclusions: Dyslipidemic patients benefit from counseling for improving their adherence to an MD. The high intake of dairy products was associated with less atherogenic hyperlipidemia, which was characterized by higher levels of TC and HDL-C as compared withs the intake of an excessive amount of meat products, which was associated with higher levels of TC and TG and lower levels of HDL-C.
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Contributed Indexing: Keywords: ASCVD prevention; Mediterranean diet; saturated fatty acids
Substance Nomenclature: 0 (Lipids)
Entry Date(s): Date Created: 20210430 Date Completed: 20210602 Latest Revision: 20210602
Update Code: 20210623
PubMed Central ID: PMC8065939
DOI: 10.3390/nu13041161
PMID: 33915861
Published: 2021 Apr 01
Database: MEDLINE

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